616th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar "Ultracold Quantum Gases
Current Trends and Future Perspectives
09.05.2016 - 13.05.2016
Since the first experimental realization of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold atomic gases in 1995, there have several substantial breakthroughs. Today, systems of bosonic or fermionic quantum gases allow for a very high level of experimental control concerning all ingredients of the underlying many-body Hamiltonian. The underlying trapping geometry can be designed to be harmonic, anharmonic or, recently, even box-like which mimics a quasi-uniform potential. Furthermore, the shape of the two-particle interaction can be modified from the short-ranged and isotropic contact interaction to the long-ranged and anisotropic dipolar interaction. In particular the possibility to tune the strength of the contact interaction to basically any attractive or repulsive value with the aid of the Feshbach resonance allows nowadays to probe quantum fluids in regimes and under conditions hitherto unavailable. Since 2011 it has even been experimentally achieved to also tune the kinetic energy of the many-body Hamiltonian by producing synthetic spin-orbit coupling. This nourishes the prospect to generate for neutral atoms abelian gauge fields, as they appear in electromagnism for charged particles, but also non-abelian gauge fields, as they occur in the standard model of elementary particle physics. Therefore, quantum gases are considered to be ideal quantum simulators, i.e. they are best capable to simulate difficult quantum problems in condensed matter physics and other fields of physics in the sense of Richard Feynman from 1982.